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The Development Of Lithium-ion Batteries
Jul 28, 2018

The development of lithium-ion batteries

In 1970, Exxon's MSWhittingham used titanium sulfide as the positive electrode material and lithium metal as the negative electrode material to make the first lithium battery. The positive electrode material of the lithium battery is manganese dioxide or thionyl chloride, and the negative electrode is lithium. After the battery is assembled, the battery has voltage and does not need to be charged. Lithium-ion batteries (Li-ion Batteries) are the development of lithium batteries. For example, the button battery used in the previous camera was a lithium battery. The battery can also be charged, but the cycle performance is not good, and lithium crystals are easily formed during the charge and discharge cycle, causing internal short circuit of the battery, so in general, the battery is forbidden to be charged. [2]

In 1982, RRAgarwal and JRselman of the Illinois Institute of Technology (Illinois Institute of Technology) discovered that lithium ions have the characteristics of embedded graphite, which is fast and reversible. At the same time, the safety hazard of lithium batteries made of metal has attracted much attention, so people have tried to make rechargeable batteries by utilizing the characteristics of lithium ion embedded graphite. The first available lithium ion graphite electrode was successfully produced by Bell Labs.

In 1983, M. Thackeray, J. Goodenough et al. found that manganese spinel is an excellent cathode material with low cost, stability and excellent electrical conductivity and lithium-conducting properties. The decomposition temperature is high, and the oxidation is much lower than that of lithium cobaltate. Even if a short circuit or overcharge occurs, the risk of burning and explosion can be avoided.

In 1989, A. Manthiram and J. Goodenough discovered that a positive electrode with a polymeric anion would produce a higher voltage.

In 1992, Sony Corporation of Japan invented a lithium battery using a carbon material as a negative electrode and a lithium-containing compound as a positive electrode. In the process of charging and discharging, no metal lithium exists, only lithium ions, which is a lithium ion battery. Subsequently, lithium-ion batteries revolutionized the face of consumer electronics. Such a battery using lithium cobaltate as a positive electrode material is still the main power source for portable electronic devices.

In 1996, Padhi and Gudinaf discovered that phosphates with olivine structure, such as lithium iron phosphate (iron phosphate), are safer than traditional positive electrode materials, especially high temperature resistance, and overcharge resistance is far superior to traditional lithium ion batteries. material.

Throughout the history of battery development, we can see three characteristics of the current development of the world battery industry. First, the rapid development of green batteries, including lithium-ion batteries, hydrogen-nickel batteries, etc.; the second is the conversion of primary batteries to batteries, which is consistent with sustainable Development strategy; Third, the battery is further developed in a small, light and thin direction. In the commercial rechargeable battery, the lithium ion battery has the highest specific energy, especially the polymer lithium ion battery, which can realize the thinning of the rechargeable battery. It is precisely because lithium-ion batteries have higher volumetric energy and mass than energy, can be charged and pollution-free, and have the three characteristics of the current battery industry development, so there is a rapid growth in developed countries. The development of telecommunications and information markets, especially the large use of mobile phones and notebook computers, has brought market opportunities to lithium-ion batteries. The lithium-ion battery in the lithium-ion battery will gradually replace the liquid electrolyte lithium-ion battery with its unique safety advantages, and become the mainstream of lithium-ion batteries. The polymer lithium-ion battery is known as the “21st Century Battery” and will open up a new era of power storage. The development prospects are very optimistic.

In March 2015, Sharp and Professor Tanaka Hyun of Kyoto University jointly developed a lithium-ion battery with a service life of 70 years. The long-lived lithium-ion battery produced by the trial has a volume of 8 cubic centimeters and a charge and discharge of 25,000 times. And Sharp said that after the long-life lithium-ion battery is actually charged and discharged 10,000 times, its performance is still stable.

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