Lithium ions are superior to other chemicals in many respects, so applications are growing and are invading markets that were previously tightly controlled by lead acid, such as standby and load balancing. Many satellites are also powered by lithium-ion batteries. Lithium-ion batteries are not yet fully mature and are still being improved. Significant progress has been made in life and safety as capacity has increased. Today, lithium-ion batteries meet the expectations of most consumer devices, but the application of electric vehicles needs to be further developed to make this power supply a recognized standard.
What Causes Lithium-ion to Age?
Lithium-ion batteries are used for ion motion between the positive and negative electrodes. In theory, this mechanism should always be effective, but cycling, high temperatures and aging can degrade performance over time. Manufacturers adopt a conservative approach and specify that lithium-ion lifetimes in most consumer products range from 300 to 500 discharge/charge cycles.
Evaluating battery life during the counting cycle is not critical, as the depth of the discharge may be different and there is no well-defined cycle composition criteria. Instead of loop counting, some device manufacturers recommend replacing the battery on the date stamp, but this method is not considered. Due to extensive use or unfavorable temperature conditions, the battery may fail within a specified time; however, most packages last much longer than the seals.
Battery performance is measured by capacity, which is a leading health indicator. Internal resistance and self-discharge also work, but these are less important in predicting the end of modern lithium-ion battery life.
What can users do?
Environmental conditions, rather than separate cycles, determine the life of a lithium-ion battery. The worst case scenario is to keep a fully charged battery at high temperatures. The battery pack does not suddenly die, but as the capacity disappears, the running time will gradually decrease.
Lower charging voltages extend battery life, and electric vehicles and satellites take advantage of this. Similar regulations can be made for consumer devices, but these regulations are rarely provided.